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How to use our tool

DSign can be calculated for one individual (Manual entry) or an entire dataset (Batch processing). Depending on the biomarker lab results in your hand, some systems won’t be available to calculate1 .

Note that it is also possible to calculate a “custom” version of our algorithms. Feel free to contact us for your custom DSign scores at


Manual entry

  1. For each biomarker, select the corresponding units and enter the value.
  2. Select the systems for which you want to calculate the scores.
  3. Calculate the DSign score.


Batch processing

  1. Upload your file.
  2. Choose your reference population2.
  3. Select the systems for which you want to calculate the scores.
  4. Choose the output scale (logarithmic or not)3 .
  5. Match the columns of your file with the corresponding biomarkers and units.
  6. Calculate your DSign scores.



1Lists of biomarker panels needed to calculate each scores:

Complete blood panel: hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells count (RBC), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, white blood cells count (WBC), lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils;

Electrolyte panel: calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, phosphorous;

Immune panel: WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes;

Lipid panel: total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides;

Liver/kidney panel: blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, globulin, bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, uric acid;

Vitamins panel: folate, vitamin A, vitamin B12, carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin D.


2 A reference population is the population used to calculate the average profile. It also provides the correlation among the biomarkers, needed to calculate DSign. Our reference population is composed of individuals of varying ages, races, sexes, and nationalities, from multiple datasets, and thus provides a broad and highly generalizable standard. DSign was validated using our reference population, and this should be optimal in most cases and should ensure comparability across studies. However, in some cases it may be preferable to use a different reference population, or to use your study population as the reference population. This is particularly likely to be true if everyone in your study suffers from a condition likely to have systemic effects (e.g. diabetes, hemodialysis), since the a healthy reference population may mask signals within these populations. However, if your sample size is small (<100) we strongly encourage you to use our reference population, as the calibration will not be robust with small sample sizes. Currently the DSign calculator here offers only two options: to use our reference population, or to use your study population as the reference population. Other options (e.g. a third reference population) are possible; please consult with us if you wish to pursue this.


3 DSign is usually approximately log-normally distributed. Select “log” if you want to calculate correlations or other statistical operations requiring a normal distribution.